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Analysis of the structure and diameter distribution in temperate forests under the perspective of the potential fire regime. Ernesto A. Rubio-Camacho 1 ; Marco A. Apartado postal 56, C. Carretera Monterrey-Cd. Victoria km Apartado postal 41, C. October 29, August 6, The ecological role of fires in ecosystems can be studied through the fire regime.

The forest mensuration variables were analyzed in order to obtain knowledge of the species composition of the forest. In the larger woodland, the Pinus group dominates in both parcels; this species has higher density and coverage values in P1, unlike the Quercus group and Others group broadleaved.

In the smaller woodland, all groups showed higher coverage values in P1, indicating active regeneration in the area with a shorter fire absence period. The diameter distributions were adjusted to the Weibull distribution and reflected the fire rodales forestales pdf. It is therefore advised to implement a program for the integral management of fires that encompasses the beneficial effects of the fires.

Weibull distribution, succession dynamics, Northeastern Mexico, Pinus pseudostrobus. En el arbolado mayor, el grupo Pinus domina en ambas parcelas; esta especie tiene mayores valores de densidad y cobertura en la P1, caso contrario de los grupos Quercus y Otras latifoliadas.

Palabras clave: Fire frequency, characterized by its recurrence interval, is one of the main attributes of a fire regime Agee, In this sense, the characterization of the forest structure, species composition and fire ecology present a comprehensive picture of the species behavior in high or low forest fire frequency conditions. This study was done in the juniper pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. The study of the structure and species composition in the same ecosystem but in different fire incidence scenarios such as this one could bring forth new knowledge on the dynamics and relation sustained with forest fires.

Based on these references, the necessity arises to compare the diameter distributions rodales forestales pdf groups of species and their structural characteristics, including the smaller trees of less than 7. The general objective of this work is to provide knowledge on the temperate forests in Northeastern Mexico, in the context of the potential fire regime. In order to achieve this objective, two adjacent areas with different fuel loads were selected: P1 smaller load and P2 larger loadconditions that indicate a longer period of fire absence in P2.

The specific objectives were: The starting hypothesis considered that: The sampling area is located in the juniper-pine-oak forest region. The sampling of the arboreal vegetation was done in two permanent parcels P1 and P2each one covering 1-hectare in size Figure 1. These parcels were located in two adjacent areas with similar physiographic conditions; that is to say, the same exposition, altitude and slope, but with different fire histories.

However, even though there are no historical records of the presence of fire in the areas, evidence of fire was found rodales forestales pdf P1, such as trees with charred bark and a smaller fuel load visual estimationmostly in the organic layer of the floor, completely opposing characteristics of those in P2.

According to Rodales forestales pdf and Whelanthe evidence in P1 is the result of a shorter fire recurrence interval; for the purposes of this study, it is therefore considered a valid comparing element between adjacent areas smaller interval in P1 vs.

The permanent sampling parcels are x m. Within each parcel, 20 x 20 squares sub-parcels were defined; there were 25 sub-parcels in total on each parcel. The sub-parcels were defined in order to facilitate field sampling. In each sub-parcel, the largest woodland area was inventoried through the recording of the species of each specimen, the diameter at a height of 1. The smaller woodland area 2.

The parameters of the adjacent area were determined based on the most important species reported in the study of Rubio-Camacho et al. According to the authors, the species with the highest ecological importance values were Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.

Four types in total were studied: Pinus, Juniperus, Quercus and the Others group that comprises the rest of the broadleaved species Rubio-Camacho et al. Based on this classification, the following parameters of the adjacent area were determined: The statistical and graphical analyses presented in this work were done through the free license software R v3.

The generated routines were created with the R-Studio v0. Parameters of the adjacent area. The parameters of the adjacent area were compared among parcels, differentiating between the larger and the smaller woodland areas. In the case of the larger woodland area, the parameters of adjacent areas P1 and P2 were directly compared, not as pseudo-replicas, to prove the hypothesis that the fires have an influence on the structure of the vegetation.

Regarding the diameters and heightsand because the rodales forestales pdf of the information was not adjusted to the normal distribution, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon Zar, test was used. The N and Cd were analyzed by comparing proportions with the "prop. In the case of N, the total number of specimens was compared between parcels N-P1 and N-P2 and groups v.

In the case of the smaller woodland area, two nested sites with a radius of 2 m 25 per parcel were considered. The information of each sub-parcel was extrapolated to hectares and in this manner, the means of the parameters of the adjacent areas of the smaller woodland were compared using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test Zar, Diameter distributions. The rodales forestales pdf distributions were adjusted to rodales forestales pdf Weibull probability distribution function pdf as described rodales forestales pdf Gadow et al.

The diameter distributions were characterized through the grouping of trees in 5 cm classes, the smaller class of which corresponded to 7. In this manner, the distribution of each group was analyzed Pinus, Quercus and Juniperus and was adjusted and modeled using the Weibull distribution. Weibull probability distribution function pdf. The Weibull probability distribution function pdf of two parameters Weibull 2P and its cumulative density function are given by models 1 and 2, respectively. With the information estimators, the frequencies of the diameter categories were calculated rodales forestales pdf the cumulative density function.

The goodness of fit was determined with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test K-S. The amor de copo yahoo with the best rodales forestales pdf was chosen based on the error index known as relative discrepancy RDthat evaluates the similarity between the frequencies observed and estimated, generated based on the cumulative rodales forestales pdf function.

The results of the statistical analysis are shown to be between 1 and 0, where the values closer to 1 indicate that the distribution observed and the one calculated do not have anything in common, and the 0 value indicates that the distributions are identical Gadow et al. Parameters of the stand stand for larger trees. In Table 1the dasometric characteristics characteristics of the studied parcels can be observed. The groups were ordered according to their ecological importance Rubio-Camacho et al.

The results reveal that P2 is a denser area; however, the trees have a larger dimension in diameter and height in P1 Table 1. This is consistent with the rodales forestales pdf of Holden, Morgan, Rollins, and Kavanagh who found that the areas with frequent fires tend to be less dense, but have higher values when it comes to mensuration characteristics. The groups also present significant differences, more notably in density and coverage.

In addition, in the case of Juniperus, the density and coverage were statistically equal in rodales forestales pdf two parcels. The broadleaved trees have a stronger presence and coverage in P2. Parameters of the stand smaller trees. In the smaller trees are those, those trees and shrubs with a diameter between 2. The diameter and general height did not show any significant differences. The density of the Others group was significantly higher in P2, whereas the density of the Juniperus group was similar in both parcels.

In addition, this analysis highlights the case of rodales forestales pdf Pinus group, which indicates that the regeneration of P. Diameter distributions and Weibull PDF models. Parameter estimation. The estimated parameters per parcel and per group are shown in Table 1. It is necessary to point out that predictions and validation of the parameters were not done in this work because rodales forestales pdf entirety tree density is known.

Goodness of fit. Tables 3 and 4 show the goodness of fit of the two and three parameter models 2P and 3P. For the 2P models, the null hypothesis H 0 that indicates that the data follows a specific distribution- in this case the Weibull distribution- was accepted in five of the eight occasions, and for the 3P models, it was accepted in seven of the eight rodales forestales pdf.

Diameter classes per parcel. In Figure 2 it can be observed that both parcels present a distribution similar to the inverted J, typical of irregular mixed forests, where the larger categories decrease in number Prodan et al. For both parcels, the 3P Weibull distribution is the one with rodales forestales pdf best fit. Classes for the Pinus group. The distribution of diameter classes of Pinus-P1 graphically presents a slight tendency to bimodality, even though it adjusts well to that of Weibull rodales forestales pdf 2P Table 3.

Comparing both parcels, P1 has diameter distributions that show a slight tendency to lower classes, which indicates a higher recruitment in this parcel. Classes for the Quercus group. The groups formed by Quercus present a very similar distribution in the P1 and P2 parcels. Classes for the Juniperus group. The Juniperus groups in P1 and P2 present the majority of their diameter classes in the smaller categories.

The probabilities were calculated with Weibull 3P for both parcels. The Pinus groups, followed by Quercus and Juniperus, had the most presence in Weibull distribution, showing that they have a mix of species in different development stages. This rodales forestales pdf that the aforementioned forests have been exposed to natural or anthropogenic disturbances, and that those disturbances have affected Juniperus and Quercus more than Photo application for pc. The parameters of the rap god eminem 320 kbps youtube distributions reflect a small change toward the larger diameter categories in P1.

These changes are consistent with other studies, where the areas with frequent fires present rodales forestales pdf trees but with larger dimensions Holden et al. However, in both adjacent areas the diameter categories leaned towards the smaller and intermediate diameter categories, which reflects the success in the establishment of regeneration in favorable environmental conditions and in the variable effects of thinning due to frequent fires Holden et al.

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