Design Span hp metal standing seam roofing is the preferred metal roofing for any residential roofing projects big or small. Long span roofs can create flexible, column-free internal spaces and can reduce substructure costs and construction times. They are commonly. Structural systems Introduction The development of the high-tensile steel cable has The use of steel cables in the design of long span roofs has only relatively .
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Widespan Roof Structures Recommend Documents. Accredited roofing details. Roof Purlins. Full description. Green Roof eng. Purlin and Roof Design purlin. Roof Truss Analysis roof trussFull description.
Fiddler on the Roof. Roof Canopy design design steel roof canopy using staad pro with calculation. Fiddle wide span roof structures skype the Roof. Ipi Floating Roof storage. Boral Roof Tile Manual. Tank Roof Lifting Technique. Floating Roof Seals. Tin Roof Blues brass 5. Floating Roof Desin Floating roof desin. Maruzen Co. Broughton and P. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Actno part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without wide span roof structures skype prior written permission of the Publishing Director, Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.
While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors, editors or publishers.
Many of the papers presented are by his personal friends and are a tribute to the esteem in which he is held. It also contains additional papers which expand on verbal presentations given at the Symposium and other invited contributions for completeness of the text.
The principal aim of the book is to bring together expert knowledge in the swathi muthyam ringtones and development of widespan roof structures and space enclosures at a time when so many innovative structures which mark the Millennium have come to fruition.
As was the case for the original symposium, the book is intended to be multidisciplinary in its approach and to present a broad spectrum of contributions appropriate to the holistic design of widespan structures.
It is hoped that the book will provide a useful reference text of precedent studies of innovative work by leading architects and engineers for students and practitioners of the future.
The authors are grateful for their help, and also for the work of Sue Fairhurst of the University of Bath who designed the layout and compiled the papers for this book. Form and Stress M o d e l l wide span roof structures skype n g o f Tension Structures: W i n d and S n o w Considerations for Widespan Enclosures: Planting Environment for the Eden Project: Civil and Structural D e s i g n for the Eden Project: Servicing the D o m e Wide span roof structures skype Construction of Widespan Enclosure: Lightweight Structures Renner Silman: Tensile Space Structures: Materials for the N e w M i l l e n n i u m Horst Berger: Widespan Enclosures and Structures: A Philosophy of "Widespan" as applied to Smaller Enclosures: One of the early pioneers in this field was Frei Otto .
Circus tents and early nomadic tents led to experimentation with sail tents for the Lausanne Exhibition Otto, Stromeyerand the introduction of high strength pvc coated polyester fabrics led to wider span and more intricately patterned prestressed membranes .
With increased use of these tensile membranes, and the perceived benefits of large airsupported structures, teflon glass fabrics and a variety of special coatings were specifically developed to provide fire resistance, self cleansing and durability - the conical membranes at La Verne College Shaver, Campbell and Bird Fig 1 were constructed nearly thirty years ago.
Fig 4 Munich Olympic Stadium In contrast to those forms needing to be anticlastic for stability, single curvature hanging forms have been largely stabilised by selfweight, damping and shell stiffness as for the Aircraft Hangar, Frankfurt Finsterwalder video trimmer .cnet, Conference Centre, Mecca Gutbrod, 8 Otto, Arupand Dulles International Airport Saarinan, Severud.
Fig 5 National Gymnasium Tokyo Olympics From the traditional brick and stone vaults of our cathedrals, mosques and temples come the synclastic shells of Isler and the hypar forms of Candela .
The above resume provides only an introduction to the development of widespan enclosures. Detailed reviews are given by Forster , Ishii , and others [3,4,7,10,12]. The overview in the following sections, discussing various types of lightweight widespan structures, is clearly linked to the authors' own involvements and is not intended as an objective historical wide span roof structures skype.
Also progressing from the US Pavilion at Montreal Buckminster Fuller and the many large scale space dome structures of that date there are now a number of constructed projects which have large moving and sliding roofs. They have been facilitated by the gradual purposeful scholastic evolution of building forms, techniques and material technologies, coupled to more sophisticated ways of evolving architectural form, defining engineering response and predicting complex geometry.
Many of the concepts for the formfinding, analysis and design of lightweight and longspan structures originated from the observation of structures in nature and from physical modelling techniques, the latter principally through work at the Institute for Lightweight Structures, IL Stuttgart University directed by Frei Otto 9]. The engineering science was largely developed in parallel by SFB64 directed by Leonhardt, Argyris, Linkwitz, Otto and others at the University of Stuttgart11].
SFB64 in effect pulled together all the technology, design method and material science that had been necessary to successfully design and construct the Olympic Stadia at Munich [12 1. Argyris et al , and Haug [ 14], outline the background to the development of matrix based numerical methods for the analysis of tension structures.
Reference  reviews the Computer Aided Design of lightweight tensile structures, and explains particularly the development of systems based on the method of Dynamic Relaxation . This introduction prefaces the language and grammar of current widespan structures as defined by emerging materials technology, forms and building techniques for widespan enclosures. The most important questions for debate are: Clearly structural forms which carry their principal loads over long wide span roof structures skype through direct compression or tension offer an ideal opportunity to approach a minimum of embodied energy and therefore minimal depletion of scarce materials by their construction .
Coincidentally a conscious choice of structural and architectural form can enhance natural ventilation patterns, so that orientation and choice of openings or roofing material will admit natural light and energy but exclude glare and summer heat. To achieve this requires definition of internal environmental performance for comfort and the incorporation of purpose designed mechanical, electrical and water systems, all controlled to reduce their demand for non wide span roof structures skype energy.
Above all such major investments in built fabric must appeal to the sense of delight of those who look upon them and use their facility. For long span enclosures the potential is considerable. To simplify presentation, this introductory paper will discuss the development of different types of lightweight widespan enclosures in separate categories: Above all this research group related its work to the practical constraints of real construction, and established a basic range of testing the physical and dimensional characteristics as well as resistance to degradation and abrasion of structural fabrics.
The work was presented in two conferences and subsequent design guide publications sponsored by the Institution of Structural Engineers [17, 18]. At Osaka, Geiger's low profile pvc coated polyester wide span roof structures skype supported with 0.
These were organised within a m x 82m oval bearing structure to minimise bending in the perimeter anchorage berms. The final structure created a naturally light internal space of exceptional economy. It was the Fig 8 Pontiac Silver Dome 10 principle innovation that launched many large air supported structures that now exist in the US, the Middle East, Japan and other countries.
In temperate climates, where high snow drifting is likely, or high localised wind impact pressures may be dominant, additional care is required in design both of the form and the inflation system as is demonstrated by the interesting forensic paper on the Minnesota Metrodome .
For reasons of social habitation the armadillo primary cable arrangement supported triple layer 5 x 3m inflated transparent ETFE foil cushions as the cladding module instead of the conventional double ptfe translucent technology. Each in its small way is a forerunner to the Eden Dome, Cornwall Grimshaw, Huntto be discussed in the second section of this book. At the time of his tragic death, Harald Mulberger of IPL was working on the design of a low rise x m kidney shape air supported structure to cover industrial waste and minimise the treatment cost for contaminated water.
The proposal was to use a very heavy grade pvc coated polyester fabricated in 20 x 20m panels with mechanical joints without a primary cable reinforcing grid in order to eliminate stress concentrations between membrane and reinforcing cables, and to provide a smoothe surface form. For flexible air-supported structures of these large spans, and even larger proposals such as "City in the Arctic" Fig 9 Otto, Arup Structures 3 , the structural function of the membrane becomes almost to separate an internal static mass of air from the external moving air mass.
Fig 9 City in the Arctic TENTS The form and design of early modern tent structures was originally tied to a process rooted in physical modelling of readily replicable physical surfaces.
They developed from the technology of the Stromeyer Circus Tent on the basis of minimal soap wide span roof structures skype surfaces and stretch fabric modelling, largely through the influence of Frei Otto . These doubly curved, generally saddle shaped surfaces of varying curvature and often with fabric models widely varying ratios of biaxial prestress, were designed to resist different ranges of applied loading with a calculable and wide span roof structures skype level of 'improving' deformation.
The small wave form tents of cotton canvas for early aircraft hangars have developed through improved materials technology, numerical modelling and design techniques, into the dramatic yet inexpensive pvc coated Baltimore Harbour Lights Theatre FTL Fig 10and the simple arch supported entrance tent for Koln Garden Festival into the "Oleada" Bird in Flight entrance canopy for Expo 92 in Seville IPL Fig These more complex forms, using highly stressed heavier grade fabrics and rather intricate cable stressing and supporting systems, have become possible because of the development of interactive graphics and colour controlled stress evaluation which facilitate form-finding and stress optimisation [15, 24].
Detailing of connections for tent constructions has also become much more sophisticated [25, 26]. Taking a perspective of parallel development of membrane and fabric technology with the evolution of tent forms, one can see the gradual development from the geometric, flat patterns of the original circus and wedding tents into wave tents and the doubly curved, hump forms of 80 x 40m Dyce Tent DRU, Otto, Arup Fig Such designs used relatively weak cotton or polyester canvas in uniform 3ft widths, sewn with overlap chain stitched joints, with fields terminated on simple scallop boundaries of webbing or cables.
The Fig 10 Baltimore Harbour Lights Theatre analysis, coupled with advances in suitable materials have since led to structures such as the pvc coated polyester humped tent for the Imagination Building, London Heron, Happoldthe conical forms for the ,m2 Hajj Terminal in ptfe coated heavy grade glass fibre SOM, Khanand to the remarkable ptfe coated glass fibre enclosure for the Schlumberger research centre at Cambridge Hopkins, Hunt, Arup Fig Fig 11 The Oleada Main Entrance, Seville double curved surfaces were thus achieved by changing the angle between warp and weft fibres of the original fabric without elaborate patterns; made feasible because of the very low shear stiffness of the open weave fabrics.
Byanalytical methods had advanced to enable numerical erection of such forms from the original flat geometry to wide span roof structures skype double curved "cloud" and the production of stress patterns and detailed definitions within the zig zag pentograph at the mast tops - wide span roof structures skype still however relying on conceptual physical models, hard copy plots and numerical output.
Developments in patterning, form determination and The development of stiffer and more robust fabrics has also enabled the recent construction of forms with flatter surfaces than the traditional highly shaped wide span roof structures skype surfaces.
Static and dynamic imposed loads are absorbed by elongation of biaxially prestressed panels, with deflections being controlled by pretension and increased material stiffness.
The scaling up to the real structure avoided tolerance problems by the inclusion of sufficient turnbuckles in the surface net. Its prototype, the IL building at Stuttgart University, remains an outstanding example of permanent cable net construction and has recently been restored. Here the nomadic saddle shape was divided in 9 separate fields of cable net using galvanised and polyurethane dipped 12mm cables and galvanised drop forged clamps. For safety during construction the cable net is a mm grid Fig 15a.
Each field is connected via 3 8 0 galvanised steel wire kid ink spaced out sharebeast to groups of 2 or 4 3 8 0 composite ridge or stay cables continuous through supporting inertia saddles on the 4 southern and 4 northern tubular steel masts.
Prestress was installed by use of sand jacks at the base of each mast. The lowly lit internal environment is created by m2 of translucent external skin of ivory coloured specially fabricated pvc coated polyester grid Schlumberger Research Centre, Cambridge provides an internal clear span of 63m.
The pvc coated polyester fabric in 23 x 12m sheets is prestressed in position to form 'stable' flat sides to the Wide span roof structures skype. For summer use only, the x m RSSB audience tent as a meeting place for 20, people is constructed from a primary system of wide span roof structures skype masts and highly tensioned straight cables to which intermediate flat panels of pvc coated polyester fabric are attached - in its way a forerunner to the Millennium Dome at Greenwich discussed in section 3 of this book.
Early low strength cotton based membrane materials were limited to unreinforced spans of less than 10m, so their proposal for the sail structures at Lausanne Expo '64 was for cable net reinforced cotton roofs, designed through physical models and hand analyses. Even the subsequent German Pavilion for Montreal Expo '67 with its 50 x 50 centimetre cable net of 12mm cables, tubular support masts and underhanging light pvc coated membrane, was designed entirely on the basis of 'accurate' physical models followed by photogrammatic restitution of the boundary zones and simple calculations Fig 15b The Clad Stadium weave, supported on plates off the cable net and a lighter internal fabric hung off 'bretzel' supports as at Montreal Fig 15b.
The double layer membrane was designed to naturally vent the external heat through the intermediate cavity up to the wide span roof structures skype - hence reducing internal cooling requirements . This provided the wide span roof structures skype form and also the "target" for a form matching and analysis procedure based on Dynamic Relaxation, later to be developed into a complete CAD system, but in this case purely to provide the required precision for analysis and simulation of the erection and stressing out process which entailed no surface turnbuckle adjustments.